The design of building structural elements for fire resistance is based on the calculation of fire severity of compartments (based on fire load, dimension, ventilation and lining) and effects of fire severity on building structural components. Accordingly, appropriate fire resistive components are selected. There are two different stages of a fire scenario, which need to be considered in the fire safety design of buildings about building materials and structures. These are the initial and fully developed fire. In the initial stages of a fire, the building content, e.g., furniture is of major importance both for the initiation of the fire and its development. Surface linings also play an important role in the initial fire, especially in escape routes. In the fully developed fire, the performance of loadbearing and separating structures is important to limit the fire to the room or fire compartment of origin and called the fire resistance of the structural element. Due to the inadequate fire resistance of structural elements, many buildings collapse due to excessive fire load causing massive losses of life and property. The collapse of the World Trade Centre, USA is a famous example for quoting the importance of structural behaviour during the fully developed fire.
Fire Check Consultants have the expertise to undertake finite element modelling of structures at elevated temperatures. Our engineers can assess worst credible fire scenarios using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling to develop time-temperature curves to utilize in finite element models to assess the performance of structures under thermal stress. The models can assess moment and load distribution through the structure to determine if additional fire safety and fire protection systems are required. The model results are used to demonstrate reduced fire resistance level of the structural components with the performance compliances.